Wrong-way driving is a growing concern on roadways, especially because resulting crashes tend to be severe and often result in fatalities and serious injuries. Transportation agencies are deploying on-road countermeasures at select locations. However, these countermeasures can only go so far to reduce wrong-way crashes. In-vehicle navigation systems and mobile applications hold significant potential to reduce wrong-way crashes. These interventions could reach many more drivers than on-road countermeasures alone, by providing alerts at all times and all locations while the application is being used. During this project, the ENTERPRISE Pooled Fund conducted outreach to automobile manufacturers and mobile app developers to explore the potential for in-vehicle navigation systems and mobile apps to provide wrong-way driving alerts.
Automated vehicle (AV) demonstrations are becoming more widespread, however the infrastructure changes and needs required for AVs may not be clear to transportation agencies. To help ENTERPRISE agencies prepare for future AV demonstrations and operations, this project captured insight from agencies that have conducted low-speed AV shuttle demonstrations and identified the likely impacts of AVs on infrastructure operations. Specifically, this effort focused on low-speed AV shuttles with the intent to understand whether infrastructure changes and the roles of agency and private-sector stakeholders are representative of needs and roles in future, long-term AV deployments.
Information was collected through a literature review and interviews with 12 AV deploying agencies in the United States and Canada. It was found that identified impacts to agency infrastructure and staff vary greatly depending on the use case and AV shuttle provider. The types of infrastructure changes for AV shuttle deployments include pavement markings, signage, roadside units, traffic signal timing adjustments, charging stations, secured parking areas, vegetation management, and modifications to construction schedules. The results of this project include discussion on the nature of these impacts, as well as a discussion on the reasons these impacts may be greater for some agencies than others.
Transportation agencies that operate Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) field devices and systems continually adapt their communications infrastructure to meet emerging needs, improve efficiency, increase coverage, and improve operations. As agencies begin to implement connected and automated vehicle (CAV) systems, they are seeking backbone communications options that can serve multiple purposes. This research utilized a “customer-centric” (agency-focused) approach to document emerging practices for ITS communications infrastructure. The final report explores agencies’ long-distance data communications needs and options for related infrastructure, with focus on emerging technologies, including: considerations for selecting communications infrastructure; costs, benefits, and performance; options for ownership, leasing, and security; and developments in edge computing and cloud computing. The report also documents long-term management practices for long-distance data communications infrastructure assets including broadband access to agency owned right-of-way and sharing options; fiber tracking; managing leases and licenses; physical security of ITS devices and communications infrastructure; and cybersecurity practices.
ENTERPRISE members’ use of third-party probe-based traffic data is becoming increasingly widespread. Meanwhile, third-party probe data is emerging as a source for traffic volumes. To help ENTERPRISE agencies prepare for probe volume data being more widely available, this project documented 22 potential agency use cases for probe volume data and four business cases outlining benefits and implementation considerations. Traffic operations uses include real-time traffic management (e.g., events, evacuation routes, road closures), operational systems and automated functions (e.g., dynamic shoulder operations, incident detection), and performance management. Work zone use cases range from real-time monitoring to post-analysis and planning future work zones. Transportation planning uses include calibrating and validating travel demand models, estimating traffic impacts to plan for similar future events, and congestion performance reporting. Benefits cited for use of probe volume data include: significantly increased coverage of traffic volumes, less field detection devices, reduced or eliminated need for temporary short-duration volume counts, improved data insights, better situational awareness, more proactive congestion management, increased deployment of traffic management systems, improved accuracy of travel demand models, and more immediate access to traffic volumes for post-event analysis. The results of this project can be used by agencies to plan for and implement probe volume data across several agency functions and user groups.