Transportation agencies that operate Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) field devices and systems continually adapt their communications infrastructure to meet emerging needs, improve efficiency, increase coverage, and improve operations. As agencies begin to implement connected and automated vehicle (CAV) systems, they are seeking backbone communications options that can serve multiple purposes. This research utilized a “customer-centric” (agency-focused) approach to document emerging practices for ITS communications infrastructure. The final report explores agencies’ long-distance data communications needs and options for related infrastructure, with focus on emerging technologies, including: considerations for selecting communications infrastructure; costs, benefits, and performance; options for ownership, leasing, and security; and developments in edge computing and cloud computing. The report also documents long-term management practices for long-distance data communications infrastructure assets including broadband access to agency owned right-of-way and sharing options; fiber tracking; managing leases and licenses; physical security of ITS devices and communications infrastructure; and cybersecurity practices.